Miller Design and Equipment - New and Used Refurbished Equipment for the Semi-conductor Industry
Referencing semiconductor manufacturing, the package assembly and
test stages of production, includes burn-in and environmental test
Composite dielectrically isolated substrate formed by fusing together (at
high temperature) the oxidized surfaces of two individual silicon
The process of connecting wires from the package leads to the chip (or die)
bonding pads. Part of the assembly process. A small-diameter gold or
aluminum wire is bonded to the pad area by a combination of heat and
A class of semiconductor device in which both holes and electrons act as
charge carriers. Any device that carries current across a pn-junction is a
An active semiconductor device formed by two p-n junctions whose function
is amplification or switching of an electric current. Bipolar transistors have
three sections: emitter, base, and collector.
An acid bath to remove surface damage and to make the silicon crystal
Chemical Mechanical Polishing (CMP)
A process of flattening and polishing a wafer by combining chemical
removal with mechanical buffing.
Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD)
A gaseous process that deposits insulating films or metal onto a wafer at
an elevated temperature.
A semiconductor material, single crystalline in nature, which one or
multiple active or passive solid-state devices are formed.
Combination of electrical or electronic components, interconnected to
perform one or more specific functions.
CMOS (Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor)
A MOS technology in which both p-channel and n-channel components are
fabricated on the same die to provide integrated circuits that use less
power than those made with other MOS or bipolar processes.
CMP (Chemical-Mechanical Polish)
Or Planarization; the process of improving the semiconductor's surface.
The process of applying photoresist to a wafer, generally by dispensing a
small amount of photoresist in the center of a wafer and then spinning the
wafer at a high rate to spread and dry the photoresist (aka spin coating).
A term describing ICs that employ components of both polarity types
connected in such a way that operation of either is complemented. A
complementary bipolar circuit employs both NPN and PNP transistors. A
complementary CMOS circuit (CMOS) employs both n-channel and p-channel
The process in which materials are deposited onto a substrate. Usually
refers to thin conducting or insulating films used to form MOS gates,
capacitors, thin-films resistors, and the interconnect system for an IC.
A single square or rectangular piece of semiconductor material into which a
specific electrical circuit has been fabricated.
The length of a die multiplied by the width of the die.
The method of securing the die to a package with conductive adhesives or
The cost to produce a good die through the wafer fabrication and wafer
The size of a die. May be expressed as the length time the width or in
The process of sorting out good and bad die on a wafer .
The number of good die divided by the number of die tested .
A two electrode semiconductor device that utilizes the rectifying properties
of a p-n junction or a point contact .
DIP (Dual In-line Package)
The most common IC package, which can be either plastic or ceramic.
Circuit leads or pins extend symmetrically outward and downward from
opposite sides of the rectangular package body.
A class of electronic components that includes power transistors and
rectifiers, each of which contain one active element. In contrast, ICs
typically contain hundreds, thousands, or millions of active elements in a
An impurity element that is deliberately added to a semiconductor.
The ability of a material to carry an electric current; it is the reciprocal of
resistivity with units of ohm [-1] cm [-1]
The measure of the difficulty of electric current to pass through a given
material; its unit is the ohm.
A semiconductor made of a single element, Silicon is the primary example,
though both Carbon (Diamond) and Germanium are also elementary
semiconductors. This type of semiconductor usually exhibits a diamond
Term used to describe the packaging of the chip.
The controlled growth of one material on another. In IC manufacturing, this
often means that an n-type epitaxial layer is grown by deposition on a p-
A semiconductor material that has been doped with an n-type or p-type
Referencing semiconductor manufacturing, fabrication usually refers to the
front-end process of making devices and integrated circuits in
semiconductor wafers, but does not include the package assembly (back-
FEOL (Front End Of Line)
The first steps of the IC fabrication process where the individual active
devices (transistors, resistors, etc.) are patterned in the semiconductor.
Bias applied to a p-n junction in the conducting direction, majority carrier
electrons and holes flow toward the junction so that a large current flows.
The fabrication process in which the integrated circuit is formed in and on
The control electrode or control region that exerts an effect on a
semiconductive region that it is directly associated with, so that the
conductivity characteristics of the semiconductive region are altered in a
temporary manner - often resulting in an on-off type switching action.
Ground Loop Noise
An undesirable voltage generated in the common reference of a relatively
low-level signal circuit by magnetic fields or by the return or reference
currents produced by relatively high-power circuits connected to the same
circuit reference (ground). This is a potentially detrimental condition,
generally caused by poor circuit layout of a PC board.
A common lead form used to connect surface mounted packages to the
printed-circuit board. Package sits on top of the PCB.
Integrated Circuit (IC)
A single semiconductor chip or wafer which now contains thousands or
millions of circuit elements per square centimeter.
An electrical separation between areas of an integrated circuit.
A material with properties that are the same in all directions.
The line or plane where the level of P Doping and N doping are equal.
Acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation, a
light amplification process or device that is used to produce monochromatic
coherent radiation in the infrared, visible, and ultraviolet regions of the
Light Emitting Diode (LED)
A semiconductor p-n junction device that is optimized to release light of
approximately the band gap energy when electrons fall from the conduction
band to the valence band. A diode that emits monochromatic (single color)
light when forward biased. The emitted light can be red, yellow, orange,
green, blue, or non-visible infrared.
Liquid Crystal Display (LCD)
A display having conductive segments or dots deposited on the inside
surfaces of two transparent glass plates separated by a crystal in liquid
form. When energized with AC voltage in the presence of light, the
selected segments will provide a black-tone or gray readout.
Monolithic IC Technology
A technique of circuit fabrication where all of the devices in a circuit are
placed on the same chip.
Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor.
Silicon doped with phosphorous becomes a substance with loosely held
electrons. This is called n-type silicon.
Bipolar transistor with n-type emitter and collector regions separated by a
Device that is responsive to or that emits or modifies light waves.
Examples: LEDs, optical couplers, laser diodes, and photo detectors opto-
electronic are materials that can either produce an electric current from
light or produce light from a current.
Solid-state diffusion of impurities from the substrate underneath into the
grown layer during its deposition.
Silicon doped with acceptor impurity (III) such as boron (p-type silicon).
The density of electrons in the conduction band is exceeded by the density
of holes in the valence band. P-type behavior is induced by the addition of
acceptor impurities, such as boron, to the crystal structure of silicon.
The sealed, protective container that houses an electronic component or
die. External terminals provide electrical access to the components inside.
Packages provide for power and signal distribution, power dissipation, and
protection of the circuits.
A thin board which electronic components are fixed by solder. Component
leads and integrated circuit pins may pass through holes ("vias") in the
board or they may be surface mounted, in which case no holes are
N-type dopant commonly used for the emitter diffusions in standard bipolar
A device capable of sensing light and converting it to electricity.
The interface and / or region of transition between p-type and n-type
A (switching) device having two terminals connected to opposite type
semiconductors with a junction, and exhibiting a non-linear current-voltage
A semiconductor junction transistor with a p-type collector and emitter,
and an n-type base. Current amplification arises from the injection of holes
from the emitter into the base, and their subsequent collection in the
QFP (Quad Flat Pack)
A common package for ICs with higher pin counts.
A circuit component, usually a diode that allows current to flow in one
direction unimpeded but allows no current flow in the other direction.
A device used in electric circuits to limit the current flow or to provide a
Bias applied to a p-n junction in a direction for which the flow of current is
inhibited; majority carrier electrons and holes flow away from the junction.
Acommon lead form used to connect surface mounted packages to the
printed-circuit board. Package sits under of the PCB.
RTO (Rapid Thermal Oxidation)
An oxidation process performed in a rapid thermal processing (RTP) tool.
RTP (Rapid Thermal Processing)
A single-wafer processing tool that uses high intensity lights or other
sources to heat and cool the wafer in milliseconds.
A material whose electrical conductivity is midway between that of an good
conductor and a good insulator; a type of material having a lower energy
Valence band that is nearly completely filled with electrons and a higher
energy Conduction band that is nearly completely empty of electrons, with
a modest energy gap between the two bands; pure materials usually
exhibit electrical conductivity that increases with temperature because of
an increase in the number of charge carriers being promoted to the
An electronic device whose essential characteristics are governed by the
flow of charge carriers within a Semiconductor.
An integrated circuit in which a portion of the circuit function is predefined
and unalterable, while other portions can be configured to meet the
designer's specific needs. Semicustom ICs can be analog, digital, or mixed-
SIT (Static Induction Transistor)
A short-channel field effect transistor, usually used in High Power RF
SOP (Small Outline Package)
Similar to a miniature plastic flat pack, but with gullwing leadforms
primarily or wholly constructed for surface mounting. Also called an SO
A type of SOI technology in which a layer of silicon is epitaxially grown on
a sapphire wafer, with specific regions subsequently etched away between
individual transistors. Each device is thus totally isolated from other
The underlying material on which a microelectronic device is built. Such
material may be electrically active, such as silicon, or passive, such as
These are states (within the bandgap, similar to dopants) at the edge of
the semiconductor crystal that arise from incomplete covalent bonds, very
thin oxides or other impurities, and other effects from crystal termination.
Wafers that are processed through part or all of a fabrication sequence and
then used to measure the results of the processing.
TFT (Thin Film Transistor)
Transistors formed in polycrystalline or amorphous silicon layers. used in
AM display for pixel driving control. Active matrix displays provide sharper
images than passive matrix displays.
A resistive circuit component having a high negative temperature
coefficient of resistance so that its resistance decreases as temperature
A family of semiconductor devices that exhibit bi-stable current-voltage
characteristics and can be switched between a high-impedance, low-current
"off" state and a low-impedance, high-current "on" state. Primarily used for
power switching applications.
A processing step in the manufacture of optical glass fiber to reduce the
inherent metallic impurities in the material, thereby minimizing light
Abbreviation for Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser. VCSEL is a laser
diode that emits light in a cylindrical beam vertically from the surface of a
wafer, in contrast to edge emitting lasers. VCSELs have applications in
fiber optic communications devices, bar code scanning operations, optical
storage, laser printing, and encoders.
A round thin slice disc (10-30 mils thick) of a semiconductor material
(silicon), typically four to eight inches in diameter that is used as the
substrate for active solid-state devices in discrete or monolithic integrated
The series of steps used to build an IC or device in and on a wafer.
Wafer Fabrication Facility (Wafer Fab or Fab)
A facility where the wafer fabrication process is performed. Fabs include a
high quality cleanroom as well as support systems such as ultrapure water,
gas and chemical generation and delivery systems, waste water treatment,
extension HVAC equipment, as well as other support functions.
The test step where each individual die on a wafer surface is tested and
bad die are marked as bad. Also called wafer test or wafer sort.
The diameter of a wafer ranging from 4, 5, 6, 8 or 12 inch wafers (4-inch
wafer is 100 millimeters , 3.937 inches).
The number of wafers completed through the wafer fabrication process,
divided by the numbers of wafers started into the wafer fabrication
process, multiplied by 100.
The number of good units after testing.
Last modified: 05/06/09